Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome. It is indicative of a metabolism disorder that is either triggered by hereditary or environmental factors. The condition manifests in the form of a very high blood sugar level, a condition also called hyperglycemia. These levels are otherwise controlled by the hormone insulin, which is generated within the pancreas. When the secretion of this hormone is defective, the action of insulin is unable to deal with the high blood glucose level, and the result is the condition called diabetes.
The slow or negligible production of insulin results, in time, in a condition, wherein, the blood glucose level resists its natural effect. This condition is clinically referred to as Adult Onset Diabetes or Type 2 diabetes. The resultant hyperglycemia displays its presence in the form of diabetes symptoms such as:
- Excessive urination: This condition arises out of the increased intake of liquids to quench a dry mouth.
- Compulsive thirst arises out of the frequent urination and dehydration of the body, to replenish the fluid level.
- Blurred vision
- Sudden and unexplained loss of weight
- Feeling of lethargy and fatigue
- Considerable drop in energy
The type 2 diabetes needs to be addressed in time to prevent the subsequent graduation to Type 1 diabetes, which makes insulin injections the only way out. The use of a syringe, pump, or pen to deliver insulin can be avoided with effective and timely adoption of the diabetic diet, a dedicated exercise regime, insulin supplementation, when and as advised by the dietitian and daily medication prescribed.
If left untreated, the condition could usher in complications such as:
- Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma
- Erectile dysfunction
- Cardiovascular disease
- Chronic kidney failure
- Retinal damage
- Nerve damage
- Micro vascular damage
It is very important to treat the condition at the onset itself. There should be a routine check on the blood pressure and body weight, as well as a dedicated approach to stop vices such as, smoking and alcohol abuse. To avoid blindness, amputation, renal dialysis, and diabetic nephropathy, it is crucial to read the signs and symptoms as early as possible, and consider the treatment options in time. Statistics reveal that the rapid spread of Diabetes mellitus type 2 is parallel to the increasing obesity rates.
The complex metabolic changes that accompany the onslaught of Adult Onset Diabetes often lead to permanent organ damage or impairment. The condition also affects the cardiovascular system, and is responsible for increased morbidity and mortality among patients. The increased hepatic glucose level, decreased glucose transport, and impaired beta cell function are life-threatening. The irony is that, Type 2 diabetes can remain unnoticed for years, since the symptoms are not dramatic in nature.
Research reveals that the causes, other than genetic inheritance and those related to an unhealthy lifestyle include the following:
- Chronic obesity
- High cholesterol
- Cushing’s syndrome
- Endocrinological disorder
The condition can be ruled out or diagnosed with the help of routine screening of glucose tolerance, fasting glucose, and/or random capillary blood glucose testing. The treatment options target reduction of mortality and preservation of a quality lifestyle. They include glycemic control or the maintenance of normal blood glucose level and administration of prescription drugs, such as, Metformin 500mg, Thiazolidinediones, α-glucosidase inhibitors, Meglitinides, and Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Type 2 Diabetes is treated to primarily restore insulin sensitivity, to subsequently control glycemic levels.